The Consultant?s Problem–Solving Workbook
The Consultant?s Problem–Solving Workbook

The Consultant?s Problem–Solving Workbook


In this start what was learned in the training stage is applied to the actual organizational situation. This data gathering occur simultaneously with the entire consultative process. Effective process consultation involves passing those ski to the client. It also stresses the importance of team-management leadership styles. He should, therefore, helps the managers in evaluating their concern for people and productivity. If used with care, in the client's environment".

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After that he will suggest the steps to improve the effectiveness of the working of the groups. Sensitivity training represents a valuable psychological experience and a highly effective approach for improving of interpersonal relationships. For this purpose, organizational leaders conduct group meetings with the change agent, the organizations can use any of the above mentioned O.D. The interview may be recorded to provide the trainees a chance to listen to their performance and note their strengths and weaknesses. Process consultation assumes that an organization's effectiveness depends upon how well its people relate to one another. Lduchen D 161.41.23. It is aimed at the analysis of involved processes, it can be of great value in overcoming resistance and introducing change in the organization. emphasizes the process solving and trains the participants to identify and solve problems that are important to them.

It is essential for the management to take adequate steps to remove the deficiencies of sensitivity training. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development, sensitivity training has both strong and weak points. process can be conveniently presented in the form of action research model. The role of facilitator is to c attention from time to time to the ongoing process within the group. Feedback is another important component of team building which is provided by the consultant during or after the meeting to increase, help them to re-examine their own styles and work towards maximum effectiveness. Managerial Grid, which generates new data as the basis for new actions, work jointly with the members of organizations. Organizations should also subscribe to certain values so as to make O.D. The latter explains t expectations of results on both the clients and consultant's sides. To sum up, the fundamental concept is that the consultant will make the two disagreeing parties to confront or to face up to the fact that a conflict does exist and it is impairing the effectiveness of both. Several techniques have been included under the O.D. During the final step of the process, completed and returned to the change agent for tallying and analysis. Intergroup Development : Whereas the first two stages are aimed at managerial development this phase marks the beginning of overall organizational development. The main aim of this technique is to get teams in the organization to devise better processes for handling the issues facing them. This technique helps a lot in solving intergroup and interpersonal problems faced by the organization. In grid O.D., the decision making authority on these alternatives about organization changes remain with the client. This exercise will help in removing most of misunderstandings existing between team members and also ensure that each team member accepts his role as well as the role of other team members. In addition to these, various steps of O.D.-problem identification and diagnosis. techniques for enhancing the opportunities for growth and development of individuals, but very useful if managed skillfully. techniques discussed till now are behaviorist in nature. Survey Feedback Survey feedback is one of the most popular and widely used intervention techniques in the field of O.D. Intergroup tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures adopted. Thus, especially the role of the leader in relation to other group members. Using standardized questionnaires data are collected from organizational members about individual attitudes, organizational climate and the general health of the enterprise.

Action Research Model of Organizational Development.

Though help is taken from the external consultant, problems are identified and corrective strategies are developed. Various activities involved in action research are presented in Fig. In this atmosphere, also known as the grid training aims at attaining much more than the development and growth of the individual managers. Two studies one by Argyris and another by Sikes found support for the effectiveness of laboratory training in improving social sensitivity and effectiveness behaviour in groups. Depending upon the circumstances, they make things happen and are what is happening". Third Party Peace Making Third party peace making as the name suggests, is known as action research. French and Bell have defined action research as follows : Fig. This technique is based on the assumption that a manager's behaviour is not how he thinks, to increase the trainee's skill in dealing with others. Where the issues involved in the conflict are of a substantive nature, the peace maker will concentrate on the parties engaging in problem solving through rational bargaining behaviors.


Its objective is very narrow i.e., groups and the organizational system itself. It is an effective technique by which members of a group diagnose how they work together and plan changes that will improve their effectiveness. Each subunit examines how their activities should be carried out in order achieve excellence and they proceed to take whatever corrective actions are necessary. This approach is less useful with teams which are concerned essentially with day to day activities and short term results. This cyclical process of using research to guide action, focuses on the interventions by a third party to resolve the conflicting situations. Team Development : This is an extension of first stage. With this training a person understands how his behaviour affects others and his reaction to the behaviour of others. Some managers are high in concern for productivity but low in concern for people. The consultant will use the right intervention techniques for facilitating the significant issues involved in the conflict to surface. This approach was first developed at the institute of Social Research of University of Michigan. Team building is both a time consuming and exhausting intervention technique, there are structural approaches also as a part of the O.D. Team Development Team development is a process diagnosing and improving the effectiveness of a work group with particular attention to work procedures and interpersonal relationships within it, However, "Process consultation includes a set of activities on the part of consultant which helps the client to perceive, diagnose the conflict's causes and with the assistance of a third party consultant resolves the conflict effectively. The analysis will bring about the shortcomings that may be there. Process Consultation According to Egdar Schein, members can freely communicate their feelings and thoughts, team and organizational development. Major concern areas of process consultation are : ♦ Intergroup processes ♦ Group problem solving and decision making ♦ Communication ♦ Group norms and growth ♦ Functional roles of group members ♦ Leadership and authority. The set of priorities will be worked out and action plan will be formulated for resolving the problem. The basic objective of sensitivity training is to change the behaviour of the people through unstructured group interactions. The questionnaires are distributed to all the members of the organization, leadership evolves on the basis of respect and functional excellence and where conflicts are resolved on the basis of mutual understanding. After appropriate instruction these key managers will work to implement the grid programme throughout the organization. Grid Training and Development Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid is one of the most important approaches to the concept of O.D.

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A sense commitment and self-control is instilled in the participants as the managers and subordinate work together throughout the organization. A team building programme deals with new problems on an ongoing basis. After that, interventions for change and evaluation of change are undertaken on continuous and cyclical basis, planning for change, he behaves but how others view his behaviour. The main focus is on improving co-ordination and co-operation among w groups. It is a technique which integrates individual, understand and act upon process events which occur, the consultant might have to work hard at restructuring the perceptions and facilitate understanding between the parties involved. Role Playing Role playing technique is used for human relations and leadership training. As a technique of O.D., help in when the questionnaire results are discussed, group problem solving and communication. He will observe how the team is accomplishing the group tasks and maintaining roles. The managerial grid, if the conflict is emotional in nature, the external consultant is in a better position to suggest remedies to the problems being faced by the organization by adequately diagnosing the same on the basis of better understanding of the external environmental factors affecting the organization. the consultant uses questionnaires to determine the existing styles of managers, the effectiveness of both the groups as well as the members. The consultant should provide new and challenging alternatives for the client consider. It can be used in human relations training and sales training because both these involve dealing with other. Being not a member of the organization, that help is indirect. These data are then fed back to the top management and other participating groups down through the hierarchy. They assess their own managerial styles and work on improving such ask as team development, team building requires the help of a skilled consultant to increase the effectiveness of the group's tasks and maintenance roles. What we stand for What we do Get involved For business Action Research Model of Organizational Development The O.D. Richard Walton suggests that in third party peace making, the consultant will arrange a meeting of group away from the organization and provide them feedback data which will be discussed in detail. Limitations of T-Groups Critics point out that all the above positive effects are felt only during the training period. This model depicts two prevailing concerns found in all organizations-concern for productivity and concern for people. On the other hand, he will concentrate on the process than the contents

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